For now, we will assume that it is possible to really choose just the right site for the garden. What shall be chosen? The greatest determining factor is the sun. No one would have a north corner, unless it were absolutely forced upon him; because, while north corners do for ferns, certain wild flowers, and begonias, they are of little use as spots for the general garden.
If possible, the ideal spot to choose would a southern exposure. Here the sun generally lies warm all day long. When the garden is located like this, the rows of vegetables and flowers should run north and south. This way the plants receive the sun’s rays all the morning on the eastern side, and all the afternoon on the western side. So you ought not to have any lopsided plants with this arrangement.
Now let’s suppose the garden faces southeast. In this case the western sun is out of the problem. In order to get the best distribution of sunlight run the rows northwest and southeast.
The idea is to get the most sunlight as evenly distributed as possible for the longest period of time. From the lopsided growth of window plants it is easy enough to see the effect on plants of poorly distributed light. So if you use a little diagram remembering that you want the sun to shine part of the day on one side of the plants and part on the other, you can juggle out any situation. The southern exposure gives the ideal case because the sun gives half time nearly to each side. A northern exposure may mean an almost entire cut-off from sunlight; while northeastern and southwestern places always get uneven distribution of sun’s rays, no matter how carefully this is planned.
Your garden, if possible, should be planned out on paper. A plan can be a great help when the real planting time comes. It saves time and unnecessary buying of seed.
New garden spots are most likely to be found in two conditions: they will be covered either with turf or with rubbish. In large garden areas the ground is plowed and the sod turned under; but in a small garden you may need to remove the sod. How will you take off the sod in the best manner is the next question. Stake and line off the garden spot. The line gives an accurate and straight course to follow. Cut the edges with the spade all along the line. If the area is a small one, say four feet by eighteen or twenty, this will be an easy matter. A narrow strip may be marked off like a checkerboard, the sod cut through with the spade, and easily removed. This could be done in two long strips cut lengthwise of the strip. When the turf is cut through, you can roll it right up like a roll of carpet.
But suppose the garden plot is large. Then divide this up into strips a foot wide and take off the sod as before. What shall be done with the sod? Don’t throw it away… it’s full of richness, although not quite in it’s available form. You can pack the sod grass side down one square on another. Leave it to rot and to weather. When rotted it makes a fine fertilizer. This pile of rotting vegetable matter is called a compost pile. All through the summer you can add any old green vegetable matter to this. In the fall, you can add the autumn leaves. This compost now has you fixed for another season.
Even if the garden is large enough to plow, you might want to pick out the largest pieces of sod rather than have them turned under. Go over your plowed space, pick out the pieces of sod, shake them well and pack them up into a compost heap.
You’ll soon notice that merely spading the ground is not sufficient. The soil will still be left with lumps. Always as one spades, you should break up the big lumps. But even then the ground is probably in no shape for planting. Ground must be very fine indeed to plant in, because seeds can get very close indeed to fine particles of soil. But large lumps will leave large spaces which no tiny root hair can penetrate. A seed is left stranded in a perfect waste when planted in chunks of soil. Think of it like this… a baby surrounded with great pieces of beefsteak would starve. A seed among large lumps of soil is in a similar situation. The spade ca never do this work of pulverizing soil. But a rake can. That’s the value of a garden rake. It is a great lump breaker, but still won’t do for those large lumps. If the soil still has large lumps in it… take the hoe.
Many people handle the hoe awkwardly. The chief work of this implement is to rid the soil of weeds and stir up the top surface. It is used in summer to form that mulch of dust so valuable in retaining moisture in the soil. You will often see people as if they were going to chop everything around into atoms. Believe me, hoeing should never be such a vigorous exercise as that. Spading is vigorous, hard work, but not hoeing and raking.
After the lumps are broken use the rake to make the bed fine and smooth. Now some would say that the most important part of work is done.
More Gardening with Grandma